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Heat Stroke in Cold Weather Sports - Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

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Heat stroke can still threaten cold weather sports participants due to exertion and inadequate hydration. Read below to know more.

Medically reviewed by

Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar

Published At December 18, 2023
Reviewed AtDecember 18, 2023


When one considers heat stroke, one usually thinks about really hot summer days and doing tough physical activities in the blazing sun. But it might be unexpected for some to know that heat stroke can also happen during cold weather sports. Even though it might seem strange to link heat problems with cold places, it is important to grasp how the bodies control heat, how they work, and what different sports need. This understanding is really important to stop this problem that's often not noticed.

What Is a Heat Stroke?

Heatstroke occurs when the body becomes excessively overheated, frequently due to exposure to hot weather or engaging in strenuous physical activity in high temperatures. The most severe kind of heat injury is heatstroke, which can occur if the body's temperature goes up to 104 F (40 C) or even higher. This issue is more likely during the summer.

Heatstroke needs immediate medical attention. If left untreated, it can harm the brain, heart, kidneys, and muscles. The damage gets worse if the treatment is delayed, which raises the chance of serious problems or even death.

What Is the Cause of Heat Strokes in Cold Weather?

The reason for heatstroke in cold-weather sports can be linked to a combination of factors that may not be immediately apparent. Even though cold environments are associated with lower temperatures, the intense physical exertion involved in sports like skiing, snowboarding, and ice hockey can lead to a build-up of internal heat. This is further compounded by the practice of dressing warmly to protect against the cold, which can hinder the body's ability to release excess heat. As athletes push themselves through demanding activities, their bodies generate heat that struggles to escape due to the insulation provided by heavy clothing. This can result in a rapid increase in core body temperature, leading to the onset of heat stroke.

Moreover, the misconception that cold weather diminishes the risk of dehydration can play a role in the development of heat stroke. Athletes often do not feel as thirsty in cold conditions, leading them to underestimate their fluid needs. Dehydration compromises the body's ability to regulate temperature and can amplify the risk of heat-related illnesses.

What Are the Clinical Features of Heat Stroke in Cold Weather?

The signs and symptoms of heat stroke, whether it occurs in hot or cold weather conditions, share commonalities that one should be aware of. These indicators signal that the body's core temperature has risen to dangerously high levels, and immediate attention is required:

  • High Body Temperature: One of the primary signs of heat stroke is a significantly elevated body temperature. A core body temperature of 104°F (40°C) or higher is typically considered a critical threshold.

  • Altered Mental State: Heat stroke can lead to confusion, disorientation, and even behavioral changes. Individuals might appear agitated, delirious, or exhibit slurred speech.

  • Flushed Skin: The skin can turn hot and red due to the dilation of blood vessels. However, it is important to note that in some cases, the skin might actually feel dry due to the body's inability to produce sufficient sweat.

  • Rapid Breathing and Heart Rate: As the body attempts to cool down, breathing and heart rate may become notably accelerated. This is a response to the increased internal heat.

  • Nausea and Vomiting: Heat stroke can cause feelings of nausea, and in some instances, individuals might vomit.

  • Lack of Sweating: While sweating is the body's natural cooling mechanism, in severe cases of heat stroke, the body might stop sweating due to dehydration and a breakdown in the regulation of temperature.

How to Diagnose Heat Stroke?

Detecting heatstroke is usually within the expertise of medical professionals. They can affirm the diagnosis through laboratory assessments that help rule out alternative causes for symptoms and gauge potential organ harm. These examinations involve:

  • Rectal Temperature Analysis: Measuring the core body temperature through the rectum is the most precise method. It surpasses temperature readings taken orally or on the forehead.

  • Blood Examination: A blood test examines the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the bloodstream, along with the presence of gases. This helps in determining any impact on the central nervous system.

  • Urine Test: Doctors scrutinize urine color, which may darken with heat-related conditions. Additionally, kidney function, vulnerable to heat stroke effects, is assessed.

  • Muscle Function Testing: Tests are conducted to evaluate severe muscle tissue damage, a condition referred to as rhabdomyolysis.

  • Medical Imaging: Techniques like X-rays and other imaging modalities may be employed to ascertain potential damage to internal organs.

What Is the Treatment of Heat Stroke?

Heatstroke treatment aims to return body temperature to normal levels to reduce harm to the brain and vital organs. Medical professionals take the following steps:

  • Cooling With Cold Water: The most efficient method to rapidly reduce core body temperature is by promptly immersing the individual in cold water, preferably with the addition of ice. Swift cold water immersion lessens the risk of organ damage and death.

  • Evaporation Cooling: If cold water is not an option, medical teams might use evaporation techniques. They mist cool water onto the body while using warm air to help it evaporate, which cools the skin.

  • Ice Packs and Cooling Blankets: Special cooling blankets wrap the person while ice packs are placed on specific areas like the groin, neck, back, and armpits. This helps lower body temperature.

  • Medication to Stop Shivering: If treatments cause shivering, which can counteract temperature-lowering efforts, doctors might give muscle relaxants like Benzodiazepines to reduce shivering's impact on body temperature.

Medical professionals use these methods to restore a normal body temperature, minimizing potential harm to essential organs and the brain.

How an Athlete Can Prevent Heat Stroke in Cold Weather?

An athlete can avoid heat stroke during cold weather by taking the following steps:

  • Stay Hydrated: Even in cold environments, regular fluid intake is important. Drink water or sports drinks to maintain proper hydration levels.

  • Layer Clothing Wisely: Dress in layers to stay warm but choose breathable fabrics that allow sweat to evaporate. Adjust clothing as needed to prevent overheating.

  • Take Breaks: Incorporate regular breaks during activities to cool the body down. Remove excess layers during breaks to prevent overheating.

  • Cooling Techniques: Use cooling methods like splashing cold water on the face and neck or using a damp cloth to wipe down the skin.


In cold-weather sports, the unexpected risk of heat stroke highlights the need for vigilance and understanding. Athletes can safeguard against this threat by staying hydrated, wearing breathable layers, taking regular breaks, and recognizing the signs of overheating. By combining proper preparation, awareness of symptoms, and proactive measures, athletes can ensure their safety and well-being while enjoying their chosen activities.

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Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar
Dr. Kaushal Bhavsar

Pulmonology (Asthma Doctors)


heat stroke
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