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A 10-Week Physical Activity Program for a Hypertensive Obese Adult

Written by
Kayathri P.
and medically reviewed by Atul Prakash

Published on Nov 24, 2022 and last reviewed on Feb 03, 2023   -  6 min read


Hypertension is a comorbidity of obesity. A 10-week physical activity program for hypertensive adults is discussed in this article. Read to know more.


Obesity and hypertension are risky conditions precipitating various other disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. As the weight increases, the risk of hypertension is also increased. A 10-week physical activity program can reduce the weight of the adult and will lessen the dangers precipitated due to obesity. Hypertension can also be moderated, and cardiovascular diseases are also prevented.

What Is Hypertension, and What Are the Causes?

Hypertension is the elevation in blood pressure and is the cause of many cardiovascular diseases. The normal blood pressure for an adult will be 120/80 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). Suppose the blood pressure ranges between 121-139/81-89 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury). In that case, it is considered prehypertension, and if it is 140/90 mm Hg (millimeters of mercury) or higher, that is considered hypertension.

Hypertension can be divided into two categories:

  1. Primary Hypertension: It is also known as essential hypertension. It is diagnosed when there is apparently no known cause for the elevation in blood pressure.

  2. Secondary Hypertension: It is also known as non-essential hypertension. This is a condition that occurs due to some other underlying problems, such as obesity, renal disorders, and endocrine disorders.

What Is Obesity, and What Are the Causes?

Obesity is defined as being overweight due to the accumulation of excess fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It is usually measured by assessing the body mass index (BMI). For example, a body mass index of more than 25 is considered overweight, and more than 30 is considered obese. Obesity occurs when the energy spent is less than the energy consumed. It also occurs after several years of inactivity and in people who are sedentary most of the time.

What Are the Comorbidities of Obesity and Hypertension?

Many comorbidities are associated with obesity and hypertension, making the individual even sicker. Hypertension itself is a comorbid condition in obese. Some of the other comorbidities of obesity are:

  • Dyslipidemia or Hyperlipidemia: It is defined as an increased level of cholesterol or fat in the body, and this can cause clogging of arteries leading to atherosclerosis.

  • Type 2 Diabetes: Insulin resistance leads to type two diabetes.

  • Precocious Puberty: A condition in which the child attains features of maturity soon and reaches puberty at an early age. For example, before eight years of age in girls and before nine years of age in boys is considered precocious puberty.

  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: It is a condition in which the ovaries function abnormally, many small cysts are produced, and excess androgens (male sex hormones) are produced.

  • Menstrual Irregularities: When the menstrual cycle is not normal, like if it is delayed or extended for too long.

  • Psychosocial Problems: Like eating disorders and depression in obese patients.

  • Obstructive Sleep Apnoea: It is a condition in which the patient finds difficulty in breathing during sleep due to airway blockage in the upper respiratory tract.

  • Gallstones: Gallstones are formed in the gall bladder due to accumulated digestive fluid that has hardened over time.

  • Ankle Sprains: Occurs frequently due to being overweight.

  • Back Pain: Back pain that persists for a long time.

Hypertension also can precipitate a few of the following conditions:

  • Coronary Heart Disease: It occurs due to a defect in the heart during birth.

  • Hyperlipidemia: Hyperlipidemia is a condition in which there is an excess amount of lipids than the normal level.

  • Atherosclerosis: It is a condition in which the arteries of the heart get narrowed or hardened due to the accumulation of plaque made up of cholesterol and fats.

  • Diabetes: It is a chronic disease in which the patient finds it difficult to take up too much sugar, ending up with too much glucose in the bloodstream.

Why Is Exercise Important?

  • Physical activity plays a vital role in maintaining the amount of energy expended.

  • It also keeps a healthy check on weight and cardiorespiratory fitness.

  • Regular physical activity not only reduces weight but also reduces the health risks associated with obesity.

  • Exercise in combination with a healthy diet can shed a lot of body fat and helps build muscle mass.

  • A long-term commitment to physical activity can actually reduce the risk of obesity, hypertension, and many other diseases.

  • Exercise is mandatory for both health and fitness.

  • Aerobic exercises not only control blood pressure it also helps strengthen the heart and reduces stress level.

What Is Done in a 10-Week Physical Activity for a Hypertensive Obese Adult?

Aerobic exercises combined with strengthening exercises can be included in the program, and after each exercise gets over, blood pressure should be monitored for any increased levels. Exercising is recommended five days a week. A cardiovascular fitness test is done before the start of the program.

  • First and Second Week: Walking daily for 10 to 20 minutes is essential to take it slow. This is because there could be complications like muscle soreness and fatigue if the exercises are too intense in the first few days.

  • Following Weeks: Increasing to moderate intensity activities are suggested after the second week. Then, slowly the aerobic and resistance (strengthening) exercises can be incorporated slowly.

  • Aerobic Exercises (Endurance): These exercises improve endurance and are done five days a week for at least 20 to 30 minutes.

    1. Warm-Up: Dynamic stretching is done for five to ten minutes as a warm-up to activate the muscles and the body.

    2. Aerobic Exercises: Walking on a treadmill for 20 minutes is recommended and can gradually be improved to jogging when the individual is ready. Stationary cycling can also be done alternatively for 10 to 20 minutes.

    3. Cool Down: Slow walking for five to ten minutes is recommended to cool down, as the sudden stopping of fast walking can cause a sprain. Following this, a ten-minute stretching is recommended.

  • Strengthening Exercises (Resistance): These exercises are aimed at strengthening the muscles and are done two days a week after the aerobics session. Each day, one set of targeted muscles has to be done, such as the shoulder, legs, and abdomen.

  1. Leg Extension: It is done on a leg extension machine in the gym. As an alternative, squats and leg raises can be done by lying on the floor or on a yoga mat. After lying flat on the floor, try to slowly lift both legs straight without bending the knee. This should be done thrice for ten sets.

  2. Leg Curls: It is also done by sitting on the same machine or by lying on the floor with legs over a stability ball at the gym. It is done by curling the legs up as far as possible without lifting the thighs. This should be done thrice for ten sets.

  3. Row: Rowing is an exercise that can be done at the gym. It is actually just like boat rowing. This should be done thrice for twelve sets.

  4. Bench Press: This exercise is done by sitting on a bench with a weight, such as a dumbbell or a barbell, on the thigh and trying to lift the weight. This should be done thrice for twelve sets.

  5. Dumbbell Shoulder: It is done by sitting in a comfortable position with heavy dumbbells on each hand and trying to lift the dumbbells to the head level, and as there is progress, it should be increased above the head level. This should be done twelve times for ten sets.

  6. Bicep Curls: It is simply done by lifting the dumbbells and keeping the hands straight in sideways and frontways. Weight can be increased according to progress. This should be done thrice for twelve sets.

  7. Triceps Kickbacks: It is done by holding a dumbbell in one hand and lying on a table with an arched back and one leg bent on the table while the other is on the ground. Slowly lower the dumbbell and while bringing it back, try to kick the hands behind. This should be done twelve times for ten sets.

  8. Back Extensions: It can be done by lying on a mat with the head facing down. Slowly raise the chest and abdomen, and legs stably attached to the mat. Hold for 30 seconds and come back to the original position. This should be done thrice for ten sets.

  9. Abdominal Crunches: Lie flat on the floor with knees bent and hands tucked behind the head. Now slowly raise the body by contracting the abdomen. This should be done four times for ten sets.

  10. Side Crunches: Lie flat on the floor sideways with knees bent, one hand tucked on the head, and the other flat on the ground. Now slowly raise the body by contracting the abdomen. This should be done four times for ten sets.

  11. Stretching: Stretching can be done for five to ten minutes to relax all the muscles that were exerted.


Exercise has been proven effective in lowering blood pressure and reducing body weight greatly. A moderate-intensity exercise for a period of 10 weeks has shown significant results in many patients. Being sedentary always puts the individual at risk for wide-ranging health issues. Being active and having a healthy diet can be life-changing to many. Especially once teenage is over, all kinds of health issues pop up one by one. So, it is better to be preventive and start exercising once adulthood is reached. So start moving now!

Article Resources

Last reviewed at:
03 Feb 2023  -  6 min read


 Atul Prakash

Atul Prakash

Orthopedics And Traumatology


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