Published on Nov 09, 2022 - 4 min read
Smokeless tobacco has many oral effects, including oral cancer, oral submucous fibrosis, leukoplakia, and erythroplakia.
Smokeless tobacco is the product of tobacco that is used for habits other than smoking. Smokeless tobacco includes sniffing, chewing, placing tobacco between the gums and cheeks or lips, or inhaling through the nose like dry stuff. Different types of smokeless tobacco include chewing, snuff, snus, and other dissolvable products. It can cause various diseases, especially cancers of the mouth.
Tobacco is derived from Nicotiana rustica and Nicotiana tabacum. Smokeless tobacco is used to chew, sniff, etc. It is made from different dried parts of the tobacco plant. The most important ingredient of tobacco is nicotine. Nicotine is a very stimulant and addictive drug. Nicotine mainly affects the central nervous system by binding to the receptors and increasing the brain's dopamine levels, making it addictive. It has serious health effects. Chewing tobacco or smokeless tobacco is known to be harmful to oral health. Greater prevalence is seen in using smokeless tobacco than in smoking tobacco. The use of smokeless tobacco differs by age, gender, and socioeconomic class. Smokeless tobacco is available in loose-leaf or plug form. Loose leaves are a lot like tea leaves. The plug is a compressed block of tobacco.
The main types of smokeless tobacco include chewing tobacco, snus, snuff, and dissolvable tobacco products.
Chewing Tobacco - Chewing tobacco is available as loose-leaf or braided, twisted, and compressed leaves as plugs. It is placed between the cheeks and the gum. It can be either chewed or swallowed. It can also be flavored.
Snus - Snus is pronounced as snoos. It originated in Sweden. It is sold loose or in pouches. It is pasteurized to kill bacteria that can produce cancer-causing chemicals. However, some evidence suggests that snus users are not at as significant a risk as cigarette users are for mouth cancer, heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and other lung problems.
Snuff - Snuff is also called dipping. Snuff is finely ground tobacco. It can be dry or moist. It is available in tins or pouches. It can also be flavored. It is placed along the gum line, behind the lips, or between the cheeks and the gum.
Dissolved Tobacco - Dissolved tobacco is a powdered form of tobacco that is then processed to form tablets, sticks, or stripes to make it attractive. Some may contain flavoring agents so that they appear like candy. The compressed tobacco is then held in the mouth until it dissolves.
There are different consequences of using smokeless tobacco. The main categories of smokeless tobacco are oral squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, and other malignant disorders like erythroplakia, leukoplakia, tobacco pouch keratosis, and submucous fibrosis. Nicotine is a highly addictive ingredient of tobacco. Young people who use smokeless tobacco become addicted to it, and there is a high chance of becoming cigarette smokers in the future. Smoking tobacco is dangerous, and when used in any form, it increases one's risk of certain types of cancer and other health conditions.
Chewing tobacco and using smokeless tobacco products affect the oral cavity in different ways:
Teeth - It causes staining of teeth. Discoloration of teeth is the most common complication of chewing tobacco. The stains are brown colored, affecting the teeth' enamel, dentin, and root surfaces. It also involves the prosthesis and the dentures and makes them discolored. There is tooth loss seen eventually. There is a risk of increased incidence of dental caries.
Periodontal Tissues and Gingiva - Gingival recession is seen in people who chew tobacco. There is also an exposure of root surfaces, periodontal pocket formation, plaque, and calculus accumulation, which leads to periodontitis.
There are oral as well as other health risks. Many people are aware of oral cancer risks but not other health risks. The health risks are:
Cancer - Chewing tobacco has serious health risks. Cancers include oral cancer, pancreatic cancer, and esophageal cancer.
Cardiovascular Health - It is found that smokeless tobacco products increase the risk of heart disease more than smoking tobacco.
Oral Health - Chewing tobacco increases the risk of oral cancers. It affects periodontal health. Oral lesions include squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, erythroplakia, and leukoplakia.
Pregnancy - Chewing tobacco affects pregnant women as there are chances of premature birth.
One can only prevent the adverse health effects of chewing smokeless tobacco by quitting it. Quitting is very difficult as it has an addictive effect. There are a few tips that can help to quit tobacco:
Replace the tobacco with any other substitutes, like chewing gum.
Consult a professional for help.
Try using medication that might help in quitting.
There are different types of methods to quit tobacco and other smokeless tobacco products:
Behavioral Interventions - There are telephonic services available that can provide you with help and support.
Nicotine Replacement Therapy - One can use a patch, gum, or lozenges which help in reducing the cravings.
Non-nicotine Medications - They can help to reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms.
Smokeless tobacco has increased the risk of oral cancer and other malignant diseases in individuals. Therefore, the healthcare provider should assess the patient's tobacco usage and help them with prevention, cessation, and treatment. Though quitting can be challenging, one should try and quit as it has severe ill effects.
Last reviewed at:
09 Nov 2022 - 4 min read
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