Paradoxical Effect

A paradoxical effect is a drug effect opposite from the drug’s intended effect. For example, a drug taken to lower anxiety worsens the anxiety instead. These drug reactions can be positive or negative. Psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anti-anxiety medications) and immunomodulators (substances that enhance or reduce the immune response and help fight infections, cancers, or diseases) are the most common types of drugs that lead to paradoxical effects.

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